Short Title

Bilingual Education Program Type


Emergent Bilingual, Grade 3 STAAR Reading, Texas, Emergent Bilingual education program types, Dual Language, Transitional Bilingual


In this study, we examined the extent to which Grade 3 reading performance of Emergent Bilingual students differed by bilingual education program type (i.e., Dual Language Two-Way, Dual Language One-Way, Transitional Early Exit, Transitional Late Exit). We specifically analyzed data for three consecutive years (i.e., 2016-2017, 2017-2018, and 2018-2019) of data about their performance in the three reading reporting categories (i.e., Category 1, Category 2, and Category 3) and the three grade level performance measures (i.e., Approaches Grade Level, Meets Grade Level, and Masters Grade Level) before the pandemic. In all 18 analyses, Emergent Bilingual students in the Dual Language Two-Way program outperformed all other Emergent Bilingual students in the other Bilingual Education program types.



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