Suspension is a commonly used discipline approach in schools across the country. In particular, out-of-school suspension refers to a student's removal from the school setting for a period of time, typically no more than five school days. Although out-of-school suspensions have been traditionally reserved for major behavioral infractions, they are not being more frequently utilized for repeated misbehaviors and classroom disruptions. Studies show that punitive disciplinary measures are often ineffective in eradicating student misbehavior and contribute negatively to students' life outcomes and success in school. Moreover, suspensions are disproportionately applied to certain groups of students including minorities, boys, economically disadvantaged students, students with exceptionalities, and English language learners. This article presents a summary of recent trends in school suspensions, followed by a thorough analysis, and concludes with policy recommendations for teachers and school leaders.
"Is This the Best Way? The Impact of Out-of-School Suspension on Middle Grades Students,"
Journal of Multicultural Affairs: Vol. 9:
1, Article 2.
Available at: https://scholarworks.sfasu.edu/jma/vol9/iss1/2