Journal of Northeast Texas Archaeology




The W. L. Willeford site (41UR5) is a Late Caddo period Titus phase cemetery of unknown size. It is in the Little Walnut Creek basin, and Little Walnut Creek is a southward-flowing tributary to Little Cypress Creek in the East Texas Pineywoods.

Some time prior to 1930, Caddo vessels had been exposed by erosion at the site, and other vessels were plowed up in 1930. University of Texas (UT) archaeologists led by B. B. Gardner excavated at the site in July 1931, but found no burials. The UT archaeologists purchased Caddo vessels from the landowner, along with three elbow pipes, two celts, and two arrow points. Those vessels (n=15) are documented in the remainder of this article.

During the UT excavations at the W. L. Willeford Farm site, a sizeable assemblage of plain (n=110) and decorated (n=108) ceramic sherds were recovered from apparent habitation contexts near to the locations where the burial vessels had been reported. The decorated sherds are from Ripley Engraved and Wilder Engraved vessels (n=32), red-slipped fine wares (n=6) and various utility wares. These are from brushed (n=28) and brushed-punctated (n=3) Bullard Brushed vessels, La Rue Neck Banded jars (n=5), as well as sherds from Cass Appliqued (n=3), Belcher Ridged (n=1), Killough Pinched (n=1), Maydelle Incised (n=23), punctated (n=5), and incised-punctated (n=1) vessels. The occurrence of both Cass Appliqued and Belcher Ridged vessel sherds in the assemblage suggests that the site was occupied sometime after ca. A.D. 1500/1550.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.



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