The L. A. Hale (41TT12) and George L. Keith (41TT11) sites are two important ancestral Caddo mound centers in the Big Cypress Creek basin in the Post Oak Savanna of East Texas (Figure 1). Between them, they appear to have been occupied by Caddo peoples between ca. A.D. 1000-1400, although they may not have been occupied contemporaneously. Key questions that I hope to answer in this publication are: (1) when were the sites occupied and when were the mounds on them constructed, and (2) what were the mounds and the sites used for? These questions are challenging because both sites were excavated more than 80 years ago, during a much earlier era in East Texas Caddo archaeology, and available records and collected archaeological data fall far short of what modern-day archaeological investigations at the two sites could routinely obtain during field work in mound and habitation features. Furthermore, the 1934 archaeological investigations at the Hale and Keith sites have never been published—or the material culture remains in the collections fully studied and reported—and thus there are research voids in the study of the sites that must be overcome to be able to understand the place of the two sites within the modern framework of Caddo archaeological research in the region.
Perttula, Timothy K.
"The Hale and Keith Mounds in the Big Cypress Creek Basin in East Texas,"
Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State: Vol. 2014
, Article 8. https://doi.org/10.21112/ita.2014.1.8
Available at: https://scholarworks.sfasu.edu/ita/vol2014/iss1/8
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