Caddo Acheology Journal
In July 1835 the Caddo Nation, which at the time was comprised of approximately 500 individuals, sold their Louisiana homeland to the United States and returned to their villages in eastern Harrison County, Texas where they remained until the opening of the Republic of Texas Land Offices in February 1838. At that point, deluged by squatters and Republic surveyors, the Caddo abandoned their villages and migrated to the prairies of frontier Texas. Approximately one-third of the tribe (some 165 individuals) under Chief Tsauninot returned to Shreveport in late September 1838 to collect the annuity for that year as called for in the land cession. Due to Indian wars then raging in Texas
"The Caddo Nation Begins to Reassemble, 1840-1851,"
Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State: Vol. 2013
, Article 13. https://doi.org/10.21112/.ita.2013.1.13
Available at: https://scholarworks.sfasu.edu/ita/vol2013/iss1/13
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