PBS&J, an Atkins company, was contracted by the North East Texas Regional Mobility Authority to conduct National Register of Historic Places eligibility testing of site 41SM385, a prehistoric campsite on a small rise above the floodplain of Indian Creek in western Smith County, Texas. Testing investigations were conducted during March and September 2009. The site was subjected to a systematic program of shovel testing, mechanical trenching, and hand excavation in an effort to identify cultural features or living surfaces and optimize recovery of diagnostic faunal, floral, and artifactual remains.

The recovered cultural artifacts indicate that site 41SM385 represents a probable Woodland and Caddo‐aged occupation on a small rise on the creek floodplain. The Woodland component is based on recovered small Gary and Kent projectile points characteristic of Woodland culture of the region. The Caddo component is based on ceramic sherds of probable Early or Middle Caddo origin identified at the site. Radiocarbon dating of four ceramic sherds supports these assessments with three sherds dating to the Early to Middle Caddo periods and one sherd dating to the Woodland period. The lack of identified cultural features suggests that the Woodland component probably represents a series of ephemeral usages of the location, probably as short‐term campsites. The Caddo‐aged artifacts at the site probably represent a series of ephemeral usage of the location, either as a resource procurement locus ancillary to nearby site 41SM404 or as a short‐term campsite.

The testing program failed to locate living surfaces or cultural features containing in situ artifactual or organic remains preserved on the site. The absence of cultural features and the paucity of lithic tools or ceramic remains make more‐meaningful functional interpretation infeasible. For this reason, the site lacks the data resources that would warrant National Register of Historic Places isting or designation as a State Archeological Landmark. No further work is recommended.

Licensing Statement

This is a work for hire produced for the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT), which owns all rights, title, and interest in and to all data and other information developed for this project under its contract with the report producer. The report may be cited and brief passages from this publication may be reproduced without permission provided that credit is given to TxDOT and the firm that produced it. Permission to reprint an entire chapter, section, figures or tables must be obtained in advance from the Supervisor of the Archeological Studies Branch, Environmental Affairs Division, Texas Department of Transportation, 125 East 11th Street, Austin, Texas, 78701


Submission Location


Tell us how this article helped you.


To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.