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Agency

Journal of Northeast Texas Archaeology

DOI

https://doi.org/10.21112/.ita.2009.1.32

Abstract

The Tuinier Farm (41HP237), R. A. Watkins (41HP238), and Anglin (41HP240) sites are 16th to 17th century Caddo sites in the modern-day Post Oak Savannah of Northeast Texas. All three of the sites are located on Stouts Creek, in the eastern part of Hopkins County, Texas, a northward-flowing tributary to White Oak Creek in the Sulphur River basin; the modern channel of White Oak Creek lies ca. 15 km north of these sites. The Culpepper site (41HP1), a previously investigated mid-to late 17th century Caddo habitation and cemetery site, is about 2 km downstream. Small areas of tall-grass prairie lie to the north between the Stouts Creek sites and White Oak Creek, but the eastern extent of the larger White Oak and Sulphur prairies is approximately 15 km to the west and northwest.

At the time of the Caddo occupation of the Stouts Creek sites, the climate was wetter and warmer than today, with significant mesic periods between A.D. 1477- 1524, A.D. 1539-1572, and A.D. 1603-1670. After A.D. 1670, the years from A.D. 1671 -1676 were relatively cool and dry. The more mesic periods had more equitable rainfall (adequate growing season rainfall) and this, combined with the warmer temperatures, led to an increased net productivity and carrying capacity of plants and animals in the Post Oak Savannah and Pineywoods that were settled by Titus phase populations.

The Tuinier Farm site is the closest of the three sites to the headwaters of Stouts Creek. It is situated on a relatively flat and sandy upland ridge (460 feet amsl) about 1 km south of the Anglin site and just east of Stouts Creek. Anglin is on a sandy knoll (460 feet amsl) on an upland slope, also east of Stouts Creek. The third site, R. A. Watkins, is 1.2 km northwest of the Anglin site, also on an upland slope, but 200 m east of an intermittent tributary to Stouts Creek and 1 km from Stouts Creek.

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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