Caddo Archeology Journal




Human burials were exposed accidentally during construction of a city sewer treatment plant in Norman, Arkansas, in October 1988. Archeological salvage excavations in the days following, directed by Ann Early of the Arkansas Archeological Survey’s Henderson Research Station, identified two burials, a small cluster of residential features, and artifacts dating from the Archaic through Caddo periods. After discussions between the various agencies and groups involved, a new location was found for the sewer treatment plant. The human bone and associated grave goods were returned to the Caddo Tribe for reburial, and the site was covered up for protection. The site, 3MN386, originally named the Norman Sewer Plant site and now called the Caddo Indian Burial Ground in Norman, is part of a city park. The Southern Montgomery County Development Council has plans to install a series of signs along a walking path at the park to interpret the site.

Site 3MN386 is located on a low terrace next to the confluence of Huddleston Creek and the Caddo River. Based on the distribution of chipped stone debris, the site was at least 1.5 hectares (almost 4 acres) in area, but the full extent of the site was never determined by archeological investigations. The archeological salvage excavations in 1988 were limited to a small area of 25 x 30 m where the burials and other features were uncovered. While artifacts diagnostic of Archaic and Fourche Maline periods were found at the site, the main use of the site was in the Mississippian period. Two Caddoan occupations between about AD 1250-1500 are indicated based on the materials associated with these features: an earlier residential use of the site that left the remains of a large circular house with hearth and a burned ash floor deposit; and a later use of the site as a cemetery.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License



Tell us how this article helped you.


To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.