Caddo Archeology Journal
Animal and human effigy tobacco pipes are not uncommon in Middle and Lower Mississippi culture sites, but are often rather crudely worked. However, the five human figurine pipes found during the University of Oklahoma - Works Project Administration excavation of the Spiro Mound are unusually perfect specimens of primitive stone sculpture and represent relatively finished examples of prehistoric art. The accompanying pen and ink sketches of these pipes give a general idea of the artistry they represent.
"Human Effigy Pipes from Spiro Mound, Leflore County, Oklahoma,"
Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State: Vol. 2001
, Article 25. https://doi.org/10.21112/.ita.2001.1.25
Available at: https://scholarworks.sfasu.edu/ita/vol2001/iss1/25
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