Journal of Northeast Texas Archeology




For purposes of this review, the Lower Sulphur River in Texas includes the area of the Sulphur River basin from the Arkansas border to the eastern edge of Titus County, and encompasses the area of what is today Wright Patman Lake and the White Oak Creek Wildlife Management Area. Traditionally, the Lower Sulphur River area has been tied to cultural constructs defined in the Red River basin, to the north and east. In his ambitious overview of the Caddoan Culture Area, Don Wyckoff generally placed the Lower Sulphur River area with the cultures of the Great Bend. As defined by current usage in Texas, the Middle Caddoan period dates from A.D. 1200 to A.D. 1400, but it is actually the middle portion of a long period of indigenous Caddoan cultural development, which began anywhere from A.D. 800 to 1000 and lasted until after the arrival of the Europeans. Several researchers have suggested that the strongest (and possibly the only) evidence for continuity from the Early Caddoan period to the Late Caddoan period can be found in the area of the Great Bend of the Red River.

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