In 1987, Prewitt and Associates, Inc. conducted a Phase I archeological reconnaissance of the proposed Justiceburg Reservoir located in Garza and Kent counties, Texas. The investigations included a 100\ pedestrian survey, a preliminary geoarcheoloqical study, and historic archival and field research. Three hundred and seventy-five sites were documented in the ca. 8600-acre project area. Two hundred and eighty-eight sites contain prehistoric archeological components consisting of: no Paleoindian or early Archaic, 4 middle Archaic, 10 late Archaic, 10 undefined Archaic, 24 Late Prehistoric, 204 undefined prehistoric, and 45 isolated finds (total components = 252). Thirty historic archeological sites identified include 1 site possibly affiliated with nonaboriginal Southern Plains buffalo hunting; 10 associated with early ranching and homesteading; 4 related to the railroad, oil industry, and early communities in Garza County; I cemetery; and 14 trash dumps or sites of unknown function. Seventy-four sites contain rock art comprised of 87 components: 54 historic nonaboriginal and 33 aboriginal. Especially important is the concentration of 33 Late Prehistoric aboriginal rock art sites and the presence of stratified sites containing isolable components of various ages. Historic data indicate possible Euro-American presence prior to currently documented dates and reveal elements of late nineteenth-century activities not noted in standard archival sources. Geoarcheological investigations provide a temporal and spatial distribution of Quaternary landforms that indicates a near absence of late Pleistocene and early Holocene sediments. Analysis of the sites and materials suggests they contain significant data relevant to the investigation of numerous regional research problems. Based on their research potential, 238 sites are assessed to be eligible or potentially eligible for listing on the National Register, while 137 are not eligible. Those sites worthy of further attention and situated on lands to be purchased by the City of Lubbock will, if purchased, be eligible for State Archeological Landmark designations. A comprehensive treatment plan is recommended as a guide to future investigations of the cultural resources.
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