Document Type


Publication Date



The purpose of this study was to provide initial validation of the Orientation & Mobility Visual Impairment Scale of Service Intensity of Texas (O&M VISSIT) intended for use by orientation and mobility (O&M) specialists to determine a recommended type and amount of O&M services for students on their caseloads based on each student’s identified needs. The validity and reliability of the scale were calculated using a mixed-methods survey research design, with purposive expert sampling. The O&M VISSIT was found to be significantly valid in social and content validity and moderately valid in consequential validity. The O&M VISSIT is a moderately reliable tool to assist determine the appropriate type and amount of O&M services for all students on the O&M specialist’s caseload.



Munro, H. R., Darst, S., & Pogrund, R. L. (2018). Development and Initial Validation of the O&M VISSIT for Orientation and Mobility Specialists to Determine Service Intensity. International Journal of Orientation & Mobility, 9(1), 1–11.



Tell us how this article helped you.