Increased distances between instructor and trainee during orientation and mobility (O&M) training is purported to be associated with improved outcomes of heightened independence, self-efficacy, and preparation for real-world experience as a traveller. However, there is currently no research that identifies standard or optimal instructor-trainee distances or effoctive strategies to increase distances that enhance training outcomes. This exploratory, qualitative study compared the distance between two instructor-trainee dyads over ten 1.5-hour lessons. The first jive lessons were conducted without an Audio-link device, and the second jive occurred using the device. Results indicated that use of an Audio-link system significantly increased training distances between teacher/student dyads beyond proximities measured without the device. The implications for training and research are discussed.
Munro, M. & Stafford, B. H. (2012). Transforming training in orientation and mobility: Examining the effect using an audio-link on the distance between trainer and trainee. International Journal of Orientation & Mobility, 5(1), 16-27.