Date of Award

Spring 5-6-2023

Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science - Biology



First Advisor

Dr. Robert Wiggers

Second Advisor

Dr. Darrell Fry

Third Advisor

Dr. Karol Chandler-Ezell

Fourth Advisor

Dr. Matthew Kwiatkowski


Inflammation is a complex and varied immune response which can be expressed chronically or as a temporary reaction to foreign invaders. Symptoms of inflammation include swelling, pain, soreness, and difficulty of motion. Recently, the effect of sesquiterpene lactones such as Helenalin from Arnica montana have been studied for their anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we identified and harvested samples of Eupatorium serotinum, a plant historically used by Native Americans to treat a variety of medical illnesses. Crude extracts of the leaves, flowers, roots, and stems were prepared by ethanol extraction. The cytotoxicity of the different extracts on HEK293 cells was determined by a cell death assay and a cell viability assay. HPLC was performed on the extracts and compared with a Helenalin standard to determine the possible presence of sesquiterpene lactones isolated from E. serotinum. Finally, an inflammation assay was performed on TNF-α stimulated HEK293 cells pretreated with the extract, and the total RNA was extracted and sequenced to study the differential gene expression.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Included in

Biology Commons



Tell us how this article helped you.


To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.