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Appendix to Cover Art, The Journal of Texas Archeology and History Volume 4 (2017/2018): A Visual Guide to the Archaic Points Found at the Gault Site (41BL323) with Clovis Points for Comparison
Journal of Texas Archeology and History
Archaeological excavations at the Gault Archaeological Site (41BL323) have revealed an almost complete stratigraphic record of the prehistoric occupation of Central Texas (Collins 2002, 2004). Furthermore, ages obtained from Area 15 of the site confirms good stratigraphic agreement between the diagnostic artifacts, cultural horizons, and stratigraphic units (Rodrigues, et al. 2016; Williams, et al. 2018). This includes some of the earliest evidence for a projectile point technology in North America (Williams, et al. 2018). Like many areas in Central Texas, the combination of water, raw materials, and its position along the Balcones Escarpment provided abundant resources essential to survival.
The Gault Archaeological Site has a long history. The site takes its name from a previous landowner, Henry Gault, and the first scientific excavations were conducted there in 1929 under the supervision of J. E. Pearce. In 1990, David Olmstead reported a unique find; an Alibates Clovis point sandwiched between two limestone plaques with engraved geometric designs. This led to a site visit by Dr. Tom Hester and Dr. Michael Collins. This finding was followed in 1997 by the discovery of an extremely fragile mandible of a juvenile mammoth by the Lindsey family. These discoveries prompted the recent archaeological excavations at the site, which began in 1999 and lasted until 2002. As many archaeologists will attest, the most interesting findings came at the very end of the 2002 field season, when archaeologist Sam Gardner exposed cultural material stratigraphically below Clovis in a small test unit. This led to negotiations between Michael Collins and the Lindsey family that resulted in the purchase of the property by Dr. Collins and its donation to the Archaeological Conservancy. Between 2007-2014, Area 15 was excavated to expose the cultural materials below. With the cessation of excavations in 2014, research focuses on reporting these findings and how this early archaeological assemblage in Central Texas is redefining the search for the earliest human occupants of the Americas.
The front cover of this issue of the Journal of Texas Archeology and History highlights two specific chronological periods in Texas. Firstly, in each corner you will find interactive 3D scans of four Clovis points that have been recovered from the site (Seldon et al. 2018). In between these, you will find and array of Archaic projectile points that have been recovered from the various excavations conducted between 1999-2002 and 2007-2014. This includes Early Archaic points such as the Hoxie and Martindale; Middle Archaic points including, Kinney and Nolan; and Late Archaic points including Pedernales, Marshall, and Bulverde. Clovis artifacts including, projectile points, blade cores, and diagnostic debitage have been recovered from a total of 9 excavation areas.
We will expand on these covers in the future to cover specific research projects currently being undertaken by the Gault School of Archaeological Research staff. The Gault School of Archaeological Research is a non-profit, 501(C)3 charitable organization dedicated to innovative, interdisciplinary research archaeology and education focusing on the earliest peoples in the western hemisphere and their cultural antecedents. The reader is encouraged to “click” around on the various cover images comprising the front and back cover border artwork to find and explore the additional rich content hidden there. Click here to open or download an informative “Appendix to the Cover Art containing this article, descriptive attribute data and a larger image of all projectile points shown on the front and back covers.
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The Journal of Texas Archeology and History.org is an organization dedicated to furthering research, education and public outreach in the fields of archeology and history concerning Texas and its bordering states of Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma, New Mexico and Northern Mexico; a region we call the “Texas Borderlands.” The J.T.A.H. is collaborating with the Index of Texas Archaeology and S.F.A.S.U. to distribute their publication library to the general public via free and open-access channels. Visit www.JTAH.org to submit an article.
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