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Caddo Archeology Journal

Abstract

In 2014–2015, Prewitt and Associates, Inc., conducted test excavations at seven Native American sites—41RK674, 41RK680, 41RK693, 41RK695, 41RK703, 41RK704, and 41RK729—in northeast Rusk County, Texas (Fischbeck et al. 2015). These sites are in Area W of the South Hallsville No. 1 Mine’s Rusk Permit, which is operated by North American Coal Corporation–Sabine Mine (Figure 1). The excavations consisted of 92 m2 (80.7 m3) of hand-dug test units and 63 backhoe trenches (702 m2).

Testing determined that the sites have components dating as early as the Middle Archaic period (ca. 3500 B.C.) and as late as the Late Caddo period (late A.D. 1400s), with Late Archaic, Woodland, Early Caddo, and Middle Caddo components represented as well. Four sites have moderate to high densities of cultural materials representing substantial Native American occupations, although none have middens indicating especially prolonged use. Sites 41RK674 and 41RK693 are interpreted as Late Caddo and Middle Caddo farmsteads, respectively, albeit briefly occupied ones. Site 41RK703 has prominent Middle Archaic and probably Late Archaic components representing repeated use as a campsite, with lesser Woodland and Early Caddo components indicating non-residential use. The primary component at 41RK704 represents repeated use during the Woodland period as a special-purpose campsite, and a secondary Early Caddo component reflects less-intensive use as a procurement/processing location or short-term campsite. The other three sites were used less intensively, with 41RK680 having a Woodland component, 41RK695 having a Late Caddo component, and 41RK729 having an unidentified Caddo component; these sites likely were used as procurement or processing locations or short-term campsites.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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