Journal of Northeast Texas Archaeology




In addition to the use of stone for tools, ancestral Caddo communities in East Texas also relied on organic materials for tools, including animal bones and plant parts (i.e., cane and wood). Bone tools were an important part of the technological system of Caddo groups and their study helps to understand the range of activities that occurred at Caddo sites in particular locations and regions. However, they are often not preserved in habitation deposits and features on East Texas Caddo sites due to bioturbation and erosion of sandy sediments where artifacts came to accumulate during an occupation or series of occupations. Several ancestral Caddo sites in the Lake Sam Rayburn area in the Angelina River basin do have well–preserved animal bone tools, and we consider their function and use in the remainder of this article.

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