Caddo Archeology Journal
Todd presented a general chronology for the presence of aboriginal-manufactured clay elbow pipes in Northeast Texas Caddo sites. Most of the pipe types have an extensive range in time; however, this may be true for thong elbow pipes. This paper looks further at the time range for; and the variety, of thong pipes.
Jackson refers to elbow pipes that have a hole between the keel and the bowl as "thong pipes." A string appears to have been run through the holes. He refers to the two types of pipes as "handled" and "holed," but "I use the terms "looped" and "perforated."" Perino mentions that the perforation in the pipe's keel may have been so that a cord could be fastened to the stem, similar to some French and Native American micmac pipes.
"Looped and Perforated Elbow Pipes in Northeast Texas,"
Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State: Vol. 2014
, Article 18. https://doi.org/10.21112/.ita.2014.1.18
Available at: https://scholarworks.sfasu.edu/ita/vol2014/iss1/18
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