Caddo Archeology Journal




Todd presented a general chronology for the presence of aboriginal-manufactured clay elbow pipes in Northeast Texas Caddo sites. Most of the pipe types have an extensive range in time; however, this may be true for thong elbow pipes. This paper looks further at the time range for; and the variety, of thong pipes.

Jackson refers to elbow pipes that have a hole between the keel and the bowl as "thong pipes." A string appears to have been run through the holes. He refers to the two types of pipes as "handled" and "holed," but "I use the terms "looped" and "perforated."" Perino mentions that the perforation in the pipe's keel may have been so that a cord could be fastened to the stem, similar to some French and Native American micmac pipes.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.



Tell us how this article helped you.


To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.