Caddo Archeology Journal




During the period August 6-27, and November 18-20, 2003, archeologists from Geo-Marine Inc. (GMI), of Plano, Texas, conducted a pedestrian survey of a 51.5 km-long corridor for the proposed Southside Regional Water System in Marion, Harrison, Upshur, and Gregg counties, Texas. The proposed waterline is intended to draw water from Lake O The Pines in the Big Cypress drainage system and distribute it to various communities in both the Big Cypress and Little Cypress Creek basins in the aforementioned counties. Specifically, the pipeline will benefit the communities of Ore City, Old Diana, Diana, and James before the pipeline crosses Little Cypress Creek and winds southeastward to a booster pump station for further distribution to other communities through existing pipelines. During the survey, random shovel testing near the community of James found an isolated, expended chipped stone "grubbing implement" made of gray siltstone. Due to the scarcity of such tools, and the desire to call attention to the locus of this unusual item, the State Historic Preservation Office suggested that GMI assign the location an archeological site number, rather than retain it as an isolated occurrence. The purpose of this brief note is to discuss the find location, describe this relatively unusual artifact, and draw comparisons with similar implements.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.



Tell us how this article helped you.


To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.