Journal of Northeast Texas Archeology




Middle Caddoan period sites (estimated to date from ca. A.D. 1100-1300/1350; in the Middle Red River Valley of Northeast Texas appear to have cultural affiliation with the Sanders phase/focus originally recognized by Krieger. Sanders phase components are distributed in the Middle Red, Kiamichi, and Upper Sabine River basins of Southeast Oklahoma and Northeast Texas. In the Middle Red River valley, key components include the A.C. Mackin (41LR36), Fasken (41RR14), Roitsch (41RR16; previously known as the Sam Kaufman site), Holdeman (41RR11), Sanders (41LR2), and Harling (41FNI) sites.

Middle Caddoan period settlements along the Middle Red River include dispersed farmsteads and hamlets with structures, middens, and cemeteries, as well as large communities such as the Roitsch and Holdeman sites with single and multiple mounds; substructure mounds; flat-topped platform mounds; and burial mounds. Sites include from one to as many as three mounds at the larger communities or villages. Burials in mound and non-mound contexts were typically in extended supine position, with large numbers of grave goods in association. At the Holdeman site, for example, Sanders phase burials contained an average of 6.5 grave goods, mainly ceramic vessels, per individual, with even more substantial grave good associations (shell conch dippers, gorgets, and beads, bone beads, projectile points, and ceramic vessels) from Class I and II burials at the Sanders site.

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