Caddo Archeology Journal




In 1931, twenty-one graves at an obscure site on the edge of the Eastern Woodlands yielded an astonishing concentration of Mississippian prestige goods:

4 conch shell cups 21 shell gorgets 5,500 shell beads ca. 200 Olivella beads 26 freshwater pearl beads 2 copper-stained siltstone earspools 2 polished sandstone elbow pipes l negative-painted bottle 2 Mississippi Valley-style "bean pots"

In 1933, larger concentrations of similar goods were found at Spiro. But Sanders was 150 mountainous miles from Spiro (Figure l) and the domestic assemblages at both sites were unknown, so Sanders was not considered a Spiroan site. In 1946, Krieger made it the type site of a Sanders "focus" which he conceptualized as "a frontier [Caddo] culture facing the open Plains."

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License



Tell us how this article helped you.


To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.