Caddo Archeology Journal
In 1931, twenty-one graves at an obscure site on the edge of the Eastern Woodlands yielded an astonishing concentration of Mississippian prestige goods:
4 conch shell cups 21 shell gorgets 5,500 shell beads ca. 200 Olivella beads 26 freshwater pearl beads 2 copper-stained siltstone earspools 2 polished sandstone elbow pipes l negative-painted bottle 2 Mississippi Valley-style "bean pots"
In 1933, larger concentrations of similar goods were found at Spiro. But Sanders was 150 mountainous miles from Spiro (Figure l) and the domestic assemblages at both sites were unknown, so Sanders was not considered a Spiroan site. In 1946, Krieger made it the type site of a Sanders "focus" which he conceptualized as "a frontier [Caddo] culture facing the open Plains."
"A Probable Spiroan Entrepot in the Red River Valley in Northeast Texas,"
Index of Texas Archaeology: Open Access Gray Literature from the Lone Star State: Vol. 1995
, Article 17. https://doi.org/10.21112/.ita.1995.1.17
Available at: https://scholarworks.sfasu.edu/ita/vol1995/iss1/17
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