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Agency

Caddo Archeology Journal

Abstract

In 1931 (Krieger 1946: 171-216), twenty-one graves at an obscure site on the edge of the Eastern Woodlands yielded an astonishing concentration of Mississippian prestige goods:

4 conch shell cups 21 shell gorgets 5,500 shell beads ca. 200 Olivella beads 26 freshwater pearl beads 2 copper-stained siltstone earspools 2 polished sandstone elbow pipes l negative-painted bottle 2 Mississippi Valley-style "bean pots"

In 1933 (Orr 1946:229), larger concentrations of similar goods were found at Spiro. But Sanders was 150 mountainous miles from Spiro (Figure l) and the domestic assemblages at both sites were unknown, so Sanders was not considered a Spiroan site. In 1946, Krieger (1946:201-203) made it the type site of a Sanders "focus" which he conceptualized as "a frontier [Caddo] culture facing the open Plains" (Newell and Krieger 1949:218).

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