Caddo Archeology Journal




This paper will look into the relationship between the civic-ceremonial centers of Toltec and Spiro and the intervening area along the Arkansas Valley of Arkansas and eastern Oklahoma. Although it may first appear that there were two separate developments along the Arkansas Valley, this paper presents the possibility that the centers of Toltec and Spiro were intrinsically involved with one another, and that one may have risen to preeminence at the expense of the other. Indeed, the collapse of Toltec and the rise of Spiro may explain why the Arkansas Valley east of Spiro was not heavily occupied during the early part of the Mississippian period. The discussion of these two centers along the Arkansas Valley will also be put into the perspective of the ancient Nile Valley. Here, similar developments and events led to the demise of the Nubian A-Group culture and the virtual abandonment of their territory south to the First Cataract. Using the Nile Valley as an analytical model, it will be proposed that interactions along the Arkansas River played a very important role in the development at Spiro.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.



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