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Book Chapter

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Publication Title

Handbook of Children and Prejudice: Integrating Research, Practice, and Policy


This chapter outlines how early childhood teachers can bring children into conversations surrounding race and racism by drawing on literature on how parents of color discuss these topics. Although educators’ practices surrounding race and racism remain largely unexplored, decades of developmental psychological research indicate that parents of color engage in ethnic-racial socialization practices that are beneficial for children (Hughes et al., 2006). The established dimensions of parental ethnic-racial socialization include (1) cultural socialization, or teaching children about their ethnic heritage and instilling ethnic pride; (2) preparation for bias, or teaching children about racism and preparing them to face discrimination; (3) promotion of mistrust, or warning children about the need to distance themselves from other racial groups; and (4) egalitarianism, or emphasizing the similarities between and equality of all races (Hughes et al. 2006). One consideration to take into account from a developmental perspective is that children’s level of cognitive development impacts how they interpret messages about race. This chapter draws a link between parental ethnic-racial socialization and extends this body of work to school settings, with a focus on teachers. The ideologies of colorblindness and color-consciousness are discussed throughout.

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Farago F., Davidson K.L., Byrd C.M. (2019) Ethnic-Racial Socialization in Early Childhood: The Implications of Color-Consciousness and Colorblindness for Prejudice Development. In: Fitzgerald H., Johnson D., Qin D., Villarruel F., Norder J. (eds) Handbook of Children and Prejudice. Springer, Cham.

This file uploaded here is an unproofed draft which may have typos, reference errors, missing tables/figures, and other content that differs from the final, published version. To access the final, published version please use the reference below or contact Dr. Flora Farago at



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