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On old-field sites in the South, oak stand may be established by direct seeding of acorns, or by planting seed- lings. Planting seedlings costs approximately 21/2 times the cost of direct seeding on a per acre basis, and based on our study of overall costs and returns, we conclude that in most cases the additional costs of planting are not justified by the additional benefits. Direct seeding is therefore an eco- nomically viable alternative to planting, although success with seeding requires careful selection of species/site combinations and proper seed handling and storage



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