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Forestry research is conducted by state and federal agencies and by many private firms. Studies of research productivity and efficiency are increasingly common in forestry, due to the greater scale of research activity, and increasing competition for both public and private funds. Research evaluations rely on accurate measures of research inputs and outputs. This article presents an equation to predict research inputs for five major firms in the U.S. pulp and paper industry. Pulp and paper research by major U.S. companies is very closely related to corporate sales each year. The relationship empirically supports important assumptions that have been used in studies evaluating aggregate returns to research.


Bullard, S.H., and T.J. Straka. 1986. Role of company sales in funding research and development by major U.S. paper companies. Forest Science 32(4):936-943.



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