Date of Award

Spring 5-6-2023

Degree Type


Degree Name

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College of Science and Mathematics

First Advisor

Dr. Pushkar Ogale

Second Advisor

Dr. Christopher Ivancic

Third Advisor

Dr. Jianjun Zheng

Fourth Advisor

Dr. Jonathan Mitchell


This thesis shows that distributed consensus systems based on proof of work are vulnerable to hashrate-based double-spending attacks due to abuse of majority rule. Through building a private fork of Litecoin and executing a double-spending attack this thesis examines the mechanics and principles behind the attack. This thesis also conducts a survey of preventative measures used to deter double-spending attacks, concluding that a decentralized peer-to-peer network using proof of work is best protected by the addition of an observer system whether internal or external.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.



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