Date of Award

Summer 8-7-2021

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy - School Psychology


Human Services

First Advisor

Luis Aguerrevere, Ph.D., Dissertation Director

Second Advisor

Nina Ellis-Hervey, Ph.D., Committee Member

Third Advisor

Elaine Turner, Ph.D., Committee Member

Fourth Advisor

Chrissy Cross, Ph.D., Committee Member

Fifth Advisor

Dawn Green, Ph.D., Committee Member


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused a negative situation with no precedents in the education system of the United States (U.S.). To mitigate the spread of the virus, many school closures occurred nationwide, and schools transitioned from face-to-face instruction to a mixture of self-directed guide home education or online teaching. These drastic changes could be causing teachers, as many other professionals exposed to sudden adjustments (e.g., medical doctors/firefighters), to express high levels of stress, emotional burden, and anxiety. The purpose of this study is to compare the profiles of the teacher stress inventory (TSI) before and during COVID-19. Data from a representative sample of teachers in the U.S. collected during the Pandemic (n=361) was compared to data collected in 2017 (n=336). The goal of this study was to estimate the impact of COVID-19 on teachers’ stress. In specific, this dissertation examined if individuals with high, medium, and low levels of stress differ in health outcomes before and during COVID-19. Results indicate that teachers report high levels of stress during normal circumstances and during the event of a pandemic. However, teachers' stress profile during the event of a pandemic showed a higher level of impact in Emotional manifestation including symptoms of Anxiety and Depression. The results of this study highlight the importance of promoting mental health and providing assistance to teachers at-risk to prevent teachers’ disability and attrition.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.



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