Date of Award
Doctor of Philosophy - School Psychology
Dr. Daniel McCleary
Dr. Jaime Flowers
Dr. Elaine Turner
Dr. Glen McCuller
Dr. Lydia Richardson
Many elementary school students struggle with basic math fact fluency in the United States (Stickney et al., 2012). Cover-Copy-Compare (CCC) is a widely used intervention strategy that helps students who experience math fact fluency delays. This study aimed to modify CCC to improve four students’ math fact fluency. This study also aimed to modify CCC to generalize the target skill to more advanced skills. It was hypothesized that the intervention would increase participants’ target item fluency. It also hypothesized that the intervention would facilitate generalization to untrained target items and more difficult items. However, due to the impact of COVID-19, the second hypothesis was discontinued and was approved by the dissertation committee. In addition, the fourth participant was not able to start the intervention session due to the impact of COVID-19. The fourth participant’s data was removed prior to data collection. As a result, this study reported results based on three of the four participants and one guiding question with one hypothesis. A multiple baseline design was used to evaluate the modified CCC procedures. Results from the current study supported that accuracy and fluency level of prerequisite skills impact generalization. Results also demonstrated that once the procedural coaching was in place, the participant with higher fluency and accuracy prerequisite skills impact generalization. Results also demonstrated that once the procedural coaching was in place, the participant with higher fluency and accuracy prerequisite skills displayed a faster and steeper acquisition of generalized skills to the target problems than the participants with lower accuracy and fluency prerequisite skill levels. Overall, the first hypothesis was partially confirmed based on the fact that the modified CCC demonstrated the effectiveness of increasing math fact fluency and accuracy on target items on two of the three participants.
Chen, Juan, "Using Modified Cover-Copy-Compare to Increase Math Fact Fluency and Promote Generalization" (2021). Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 395.
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