Date of Award

Spring 5-16-2016

Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science - Geology



First Advisor

LaRell Nielson

Second Advisor

Wesley Brown

Third Advisor

Kenneth Farrish


Cone in cone concretions found in the Stanley Group of Southeastern Oklahoma have a variety of external and internal attributes which allow diagenetic and theoretical models of formation to be hypothesized. Stanley Group carbonate cone in cone concretions are initially formed in sulfur reducing horizons at shallow burial depths in a poorly circulated possibly deep trough containing siliceous sediments and organic matter. Collected concretions near the town of Smithville, Oklahoma displayed four different external morphologies and four variations of mineral constituents. All concretions contained microscopic cones which initiated diffusion and/or fluid patterns and is an early cementation process that directly altered the sediment compared to the surrounding deposits. The patterns initiated ultimately controlled and recorded diagenic alterations to mineral content and structure of the concretions. Concretion mineralogy consisted of microgranular calcite, twinned lamellae calcite and siliceous precipitates which dissolved carbonates from the inside out.


I would first like to thank my wife and daughters for their support and encouragement while undertaking this endeavor. A big thank goes to my Dad and Jodi Hill for their assistance and support kayaking the rivers and completing field work. I would also like to thank my advisor Dr. Nielson for his advice and lessons on sedimentological processes and for sparking my interest in all things geological. Without his cooperation and assistance, this project would have never been achieved. I would like to thank Dr. Stafford for his valuable lessons on carbonates and hydrology, and for taking the time to listen and answer questions. A round of thanks goes to Dr. Brown, Dr. Farrish, and Dr. Becnel for serving on my committee, but the biggest thanks goes to God for creating this magnificent world and for his love of mankind.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.



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