Date of Award

Fall 12-14-2019

Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Natural Science


College of Science and Mathematics

First Advisor

Dr. Kefa K. Onchoke


The influence of biosolids upon the uptake of Mn and Cd by radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was investigated through the characterization of biosolids, sequential extraction of the biosolids, and the determination of the metal content in the root, shoot and leaves of radish (Raphanus sativus L.).The biosolid samples from Nacogdoches Wastewater Sludge (NWWS), Lufkin Wastewater Sludge (LWWS), Soil Therapy Compost (STC) had pHs between 5.33 – 6.74. The elemental compositions of the biosolid samples were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and SEM/EDX. Major elements (K, Mg, Mn, P) needed for plant growth were found in the biosolid samples while toxic elements Cd, Cr, As, Pb were determined below the USEPA maximum ceiling limit. The functional groups in the biosolids were determined using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The FTIR spectra showed peaks at 3386, 2921, 1640, 1375, 1000, 695, 563 cm -1 attributed to -OH, C-H, C=O, C-N, C-F, C-Cl, and C-Br groups. A scanning electron microscope was used to determine the particle size of the biosolid. The biosolids have particle diameter in the range ~ 25 – 120 µm. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the existence of vermiculite, alunogen, and quartz in the biosolids. By using a modified Tessier sequential extraction protocol Mn and Cd were found bioavailable in biosolid samples. The accumulation of Mn and Cd concentrations in radish were in the order [Mn]leaves > [Mn]shoot > [Mn]root, and [Cd]root > [Cd]shoot > [Cd]leaf,respectively.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.



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