Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts - History



First Advisor

Scott Sosebee

Second Advisor

Perky Beisel

Third Advisor

Andrew Lannen

Fourth Advisor

Michael Martin


The years following the Civil War proved to be tumultuous for the nation and caused great social and economic upheaval in the South. Congress established the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands in 1865 to provide a smoother transition in former Confederate states and to guard the liberties of the former bondsmen. The agents of the Freedmen’s Bureau in Deep East Texas faced the same challenges and hardships as their counterparts in other areas of the state and throughout the South. Numerous historians have written on Reconstruction and the Freedmen’s Bureau in Texas, but in a broader sense.

This study primarily focused on the records left by the Freedmen’s Bureau agents in the Deep East Texas counties of Nacogdoches, Angelina, Shelby, San Augustine, Sabine, and part of Cherokee. These primary sources uncovered a wealth of understanding into the problems that the agents faced during their tenure in their subdistricts which mirrored the situations faced by subassistant commissioners throughout the South.



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