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One in 4 children in America ages 0-5 live in poverty (Federal Statistics, 2012); this group is far more likely to enter school as linguistically disadvantaged and the gap increases as they progress through school. This study investigates the effect of indirect language stimulation techniques on preschool children enrolled in Head Start programs in rural east Texas. The results from this study indicate differing patterns of language development between 3- and 4-year-old children, in response to their teacher’s use of indirect language stimulation techniques in normal day-to-day teaching. Specifically, the intervention using SPEAK techniques had a positive effect on the expressive English language vocabulary development of 4-year-old at-risk preschool children.


Wilson, H. E., Nerren, J. W., & Abel, C. D. (2015). Language Stimulation Techniques for Three-Year-Old and Four-Year-Old Children: Patterns of Language Development. NHSA Dialog, 18(1).



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