This study is focused upon an analysis of Gahagan biface morphology and enlists the three largest samples of these bifaces, to include that of the type site (Gahagan Mound) as well as the Mounds Plantation and George C. Davis sites. Results indicate a significant difference in Gahagan biface morphology at the Mounds Plantation site when compared with Gahagan bifaces from the Gahagan Mound and George C. Davis sites. A test of morphological integration indicates that the bifaces are significantly integrated, meaning that those traits used to characterize their shape (blade and base) vary in a coordinated manner. Tests for allometry and asymmetry were not significant. Results confirm that Gahagan biface production at Mounds Plantation differs significantly when compared with industries at Gahagan Mound and George C. Davis. Results augment previous inquiries, and provide additional evidence for a north-south divide based upon the morphology associated with communities of practice for Gahagan bifaces. When viewed in concert with similar shifts in Hickory Fine Engraved and Smithport Plain bottle morphology, multiple lines of evidence lend support to an increasingly robust argument for two previously unrecognized and morphologically-unique Caddo communities of practice.
Selden, Robert Z. Jr.; Dockall, John E.; and Shafer, Harry J., "Lithic Morphological Organization: Gahagan Bifaces from Texas and Louisiana" (2018). CRHR: Archaeology. 266.