Evaluation and removal efficiencies of a rural WWTP for metals and anions in Lufkin, East Texas (USA)
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
The present study quantified element concentrations and evaluated the removal efficiencies of the Lufkin Wastewater Treatment Plant (LWWTP): a public municipal wastewater treatment plant in East Texas. Macroelements (Na, K, Mg, Ca, Al, Fe, Se, Zn, P, and S) and microelements (Ni, Pb, Mn, Cr, Mo, Cu, Co, V, As, B, Ba) were detected using ICP-OES and ICP-MS. In addition, the anion concentrations (Br-, NO3-, NO2-, PO43-, F-, Cl-, and SO42-) and their percent removal from the LWWTP were assessed by using ion chromatography. Whereas macroelements in the influent were above the maximum ceiling limits, the total metal concentrations in the effluent were found below the USEPA (below μg/L) guidelines. In general, the removal efficiencies for metals in LWWTP were ≥ 94%. The removal efficiencies of the anions were > 100% (Br-), 16.42% (Cl-), 78.89% (F-), 182.59% (NO3-), > 100% (NO2-), 51.81% (PO43-), and 67.01% (SO42-). In addition, Pierson correlation coefficients between the anions and cations, and implications for usage and suggested improvements of the treatment plants are proposed.
Onchoke KK, Franclemont CM. Evaluation and removal efficiencies of a rural WWTP for metals and anions in Lufkin, East Texas (USA). Environ Monit Assess. 2022 Oct 18;194(12):920. doi: 10.1007/s10661-022-10622-7. PMID: 36257995; PMCID: PMC9579637.
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