Title

Structural Characterization and Evaluation of Municipal Wastewater Sludge (Biosolids) from two Rural Wastewater Treatment Plants in East Texas, USA

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

Fall 11-2018

Abstract

Biosolids collected from two rural wastewater treatment plants (NWWTP, LWWTP) in East Texas, USA were characterized and evaluated via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and ion chromatography. Concentrations of toxic metals Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Hg, and Zn meet USEPA guideline recommendations for land applications. Notably, concentrations in biosolids from NWWTP and LWWTP follow similar trends. Metal concentrations from NWWTP follow the order: Mn (700 ± 83) > Zn (422.5 ± 35.4 ppm) > Ba (319.5 ± 87 ppm) > Cu (240 ± 27 ppm) > B (107 ± 14 ppm) > V (24± 3.3 ppm) > Cr (20 ± 3.3 ppm) > Ni (16.7 ± 2.0 ppm) > Pb (16.8 ± 1.1 ppm) > As (11.99 ± 1.27 ppm) > Co (7.6 ± 0.7 ppm) > Mo (6.4 ± 1.4 ppm) > Hg (0.55 ± 0.24 ppm) > Cd (0.130 ± 0.109 ppm). Macro-elements concentrations in LWWTP follow the trend P (19648 ± 169) > Fe (22688 ±2110) > Ca (9372±163) > S (9010 ±1009) > Al (12538 ± 2116) > K (3514± 550) > Mg (33370 ± 502) > Na (1511 ± 472). The Br -, NO3-, NO2-, F-, Cl-, and SO42- concentrations meet USEPA guidelines. Whereas biosolid particle sizes were in the range ~20 mm to 500 mm, quartz and vermiculite were major constituents with abundancies 12.94 % and 10.87 % w/wt, respectively.

DOI

doi:10.1016/j.saa.2018.06.096

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